What is hosting: what is it for and what types are there? Who needs it

What is hosting: what is it for and what types are there? Who needs it

What is hosting and domain if you say it in simple words ? To begin with, I want to say that without these two things you will not be able to host your site on the Internet, regardless of the course you buy in building the site, you will have to buy a hosting and a domain so that your site was “born” on Internet.

And so we will take turns and as briefly as possible.

Why do you need a hosting site?

The site created, in the most trivial form, is a group of files placed on your hard disk and, so that your brain can be seen by everyone, this group of files must be positioned so that anyone can see it.

But the problem is that anyone cannot access your computer, only you can use it and from a security point of view, this is the best option to populate your computer with various viruses and other malicious codes when accessing your computer. it is open from the outside to anyone and at any time.

Server and hosting

Especially for this, so-called servers have been created which provide a certain amount of hard disk space for any user. These places are accessible to the outside world, but only in terms of viewing and copying information on the computer. In addition, these functions can also be safely deactivated.

So, you can’t simply transfer any files to this place – videos, music, pictures, etc. Here you can place the files of your site and everyone can see your creation. This place is called hosting. You can use both free and paid hosting, the second has its significant advantages.

What it hosts in simple words

Hosting – This is the place on the server that a specific company provides you. A company that provides hosting is called a hosting provider.

However, hosting the site files isn’t enough for anyone to visit. Because? The answer is simple! How can people know how to find this place and view your site?

What is a domain in detail

Especially for this, domains or domain names have been introduced. Domains are divided into zones and levels. For example, my IT training site:

http://www.goodkomp.com is a second level domain. Let’s analyze this domain in parts.

HTTP – This is a hypertext transfer protocol. Tells the program how to receive and transfer files. There are several protocols: HTTPS is the same, only more secure, POP3 and SMTP are the mail protocols used to send letters, FTP is the file transfer protocol, files are transferred using it, etc.

WWW – World Wide Web, translated into Russian as “World Wide Web”. This is a special service for the network. Today you can specify the site name without WWW. The program will automatically use this service.

Goodkomp – This is the site’s domain name – precedes the dot after the WWW. It can be anything you order it for yourself.

COM – This is the domain area of ​​my site, it is indicated after the dot in the site name. Today there are several dozen domain areas!

The COM zone and any other zone is a top-level domain.

And here’s a third level domain.

Domain is the name of your site.

Domain name – this is the address of the site by entering the domain name in the browser’s address bar – you automatically get to the site with this name.

I hope it has now become clear to you that without buying a domain and hosting you will not be able to host your site on the Internet.

And finally – today there are many sites that offer you a free domain and hosting, but I strongly advise you not to take them if you are seriously thinking about working on the site!

Why do you think so?

Hosting and domain are concepts that determine the site’s residence on the Internet. Hosting provides the space needed to store your site on the Internet and the domain is responsible for its online address.

And therefore, since you have a problem with the site, the hosting and domain information simply becomes vital. The site has to live somewhere – that’s an undoubted fact .

After all, if it simply exists on your computer, then no one but you and your friends will see it. Therefore, you need to look for new fields where you can perfectly position your creation.

What I want to notice in the first place, hosting and domain are leased concepts, that is, it is not possible to buy them forever, it is necessary to periodically pay a certain amount for them. For example, the minimum time to order a domain is one year and hosting is one month. But let’s deepen the consideration of these values, so that everything becomes clear for you.

Hosting – This is like an apartment for the site. That is, you turn to a hosting provider (online landowner), offer you certain conditions (virtual or dedicated server, support for scripts and programming languages, the space needed) and decide if they are suitable for you.

After consent you are given the ordered place on your hard drive, this is your cozy apartment. The hard drive itself is part of the provider’s server; all servers are stored in specially organized buildings called data centers. Here, everything is due to ensure that all equipment is in continuous communication with the Internet. As a result, your site, stored on the hard drive of one of the servers, is also located on the virtual web.

But the process is not over . After all, hosting, that is, your web product has an apartment, but there is no registration. And nobody knows where your resource is located. Therefore, you need to choose the appropriate name for it. Typically, a domain is made up of two parts.

First part , or the first level of the domain, indicates in which country the site is “registered” or in which activity it refers. That is, it can be zone.ru or.rf, indicating the “Russian” citizenship of the project, zone.com, talking about the commercial ownership of the site, etc.

And the second part is the main one, which is the main domain name. Take with you how you want to express your project. For example, look at the domain of this site: service-joomla. And in full, the domain looks like this:

Site (.ru is a domain zone).

Third level and higher domains also have the right to exist, but are usually not referred to as primary addresses.

Well, now you have enough knowledge on hosting and domain!

The right choice of hosting for the site

Advertising hosting services are encountered most often. An inexperienced user can easily get lost in these bowels of advertising offers. Therefore, it is necessary to deal with this problem carefully, so as not to bite your elbows later.

Wide range the choice of hosting to host a site can be a little confusing for a beginner. There are many aspects that need to be considered and compared. On some hosting sites there are many technical details that can be completely incomprehensible for beginners. In this case, it is impossible to determine if some functions are necessary or if their purpose is not known at all.

In most cases, promotional offers contain some marketing gimmicks. Therefore, you cannot be seduced by tempting offers. You need to understand specifically for what purposes a website is needed and, consequently, create hosting requirements. A site with personal materials or a hobby, a business card site does not need a large amount of disk space and therefore expensive hosting. You can only spend money on registering a domain name, which I then attach to any hosting you like.

Possible use of inexpensive hosting , which offers immediately and domain registration is best excluded. When contacting free and low cost hosting, you need to understand all the risks and malfunctions that may arise. The owners of a free hosting, in some cases, can publish their ads on your site without notice.

If the site generates revenue, or this is the company site, the company site, of course it is better not to be greedy.

The money spent on hosting will pay off in the form of stable operation and reliable protection against site hacking, spam and many other problems.

When working on a serious and profitable project, you should not overlook the choice of hosting. High-quality hosting is not free, so it is necessary to carefully evaluate all the features of the hosting packages offered.

Hello dear readers of the blog site. Today I want to talk about a concept like hosting, starting with what it is (for those who have just joined us) and ending with its impact on promoting the website. So let’s get started.

Hosting is a service on providing computing power for publishing information. Hosting a website or anything else on your home computer is neither convenient nor profitable. It is much more efficient to rent a server or part of it (see) in a special data center, or place your own server there, which they will take care of.

Hosting offers its customers (by renting or hosting their equipment) high-speed Internet access channel and support for a stable operation of the equipment 24 hours essentially (perfectly). In general, you are sleeping and your site works, which is why you pay hoster money (even if there are times – sometimes even very interesting).

There are many hosters (companies that provide similar services) on the market. Which hosting to choose? Oh, that’s a question of questions. Even more fuel is added to the fire that the future fate of your site may depend on your choice.

What is hosting and what they are

Website hosting

This word comes from the host (node) and I have already written. Most often, this term means website hosting – this is when someone provides you with a “slice” of the server (a special office computer with the necessary software and works almost without human intervention). This server is always connected to the network (itself, electrical, well, information, that is, to the Internet) and you can use the “piece” assigned to you to place the files and databases of your sites on it.

There are many nuances and points that influence the cost of this service. It all depends on the size of the server “piece” (resources allocated for you), the type of service (shared hosting or virtual dedicated server) and the “coldness” of the server itself (sometimes you have to use multiple servers simultaneously to distribute a high load ). The price, respectively, can vary from a hundred rubles to many thousands of dollars (per month).

There are several groups that can be divided into services hosted on site positioning. We will talk about it in more detail below, but for now I will list them only:

  1. Shared hosting – many (very many) sites on a hardware unit (server – office computer). There are restrictions on the resources consumed, but neighbors can “push their elbows”. But cheap and easy to use.
  2. Dedicated virtual server (VPS \\ VDS): there may be many sites on one server, but they should no longer influence each other. A little more expensive, but much more complicated, because they only give you a “container”, and you will fill up and configure yourself (or hire someone).
  3. Dedicated server – you have “the whole piece of iron” at your disposal. No neighbors and all the power of the server is yours. The price in this case depends on the steepness of the hardware. Well, all the settings are your headache.
  4. Cloud hosting – you have been assigned a resource in the cloud, e.g. not on a specific hardware unit, but in general (in a pool with a group of host machines visible as a cloud). The trick is that all of this can be easily scaled down without a rigid tariff line (from zero to infinite). Often, payment is charged only for the resource consumed.
  5. Location – just bring your server (box) to the hoster’s data center and put it in the rack (or elsewhere), connect it to the network, the Internet and monitoring. Everything else is the same as a normal dedicated server, but here you do not pay for the server rental, but for the rental of a server room.

To a site located on such hosting (like a site -) through so-called NS records (they are created where you purchased this or that). If you change hosting, you will need to change NS records to new ones, but the site name will remain unchanged despite its physical move to another location. If all this is not clear, read the article (you will like it, I guarantee it).

File hosting

There are also so called file hosting , which are also called cloud storage or something else there. This is a bit different and has no direct relationship with the sites, but it’s probably worth mentioning (at least so that there is no confusion in the head). Such file hosting, as a rule, are “in the database” for free, but for a complete job, you will still need a paid account (even if for whom it is).

On your computer, you create a folder (more precisely, it is created automatically) and you throw everything you want to synchronize with your disk space in a file hosting. The size of the piece depends on the tariff (it is usually very small). In addition to archiving, sometimes there is still the possibility of recovering deleted files, as well as the possibility of collaborating on documents.

In general, nothing is complicated, an ordinary household thing accessible to everyone and understandable. The hosters in this case also have data centers with a group of servers, but only the files can be placed on them ( no database , no domain, no serious settings).

Yes, as I was writing, I thought that this can probably be attributed to the same category. We will no longer talk about this topic, mainly because there are detailed publications on all these services (yes, yes, hosting is mainly a service, as we remember).

Shared hosting

This type of service is often called simply hosting or a site hosting service. Almost all hosters supply it, with the exception of those specialized exclusively in dedicated servers (virtual and real). I gave a brief description above, and then we turn right at the point.

What are the benefits of shared hosting?

  1. Inexpensive – for fairly modest money (sometimes even less than a hundred rubles a month), you can get a perfectly functioning “field” for your sites.
  2. Immediately after ordering a service, you receive all the necessary data (from the control panel, etc.) to start or create a new one. You can do everything yourself without problems (elementary school level).
  3. The technical hosting support (if it meets the high standards of capitalism) will have to help solve all the problems encountered with the site, since virtual hosting is a collective farm managed by the hoster. Most of the problems will be in his jurisdiction. This is a big plus for you.
  4. Your sites will sometimes be able to go beyond the virtual fence framework (walls), limiting the maximum percentage of common consumption for all server resources (the host machine, i.e. the office computer where all the sites live) ). If this happens not too often, not too much and not too long.
    Although some hosters temporarily disable these intruders (others simply warn you – this way I have delayed switching to VPS from my current host for about a year).
  5. A service, and there are not so few offers on the market (there are a few dozen in the article). It is clear that there will be even more restrictions there, technical support will not need anything for you and conditions and relationships may be appropriate. But the word “free” sometimes surpasses the rest.

What are the disadvantages of shared hosting

So what is virtual hosting ? As you have seen, this is a rather controversial, albeit popular, type of service, as It is perfectly suitable for beginners and experienced webmasters, because it meets their basic requirements: cheap and cheerful (just). Another question is who should receive this service, and this, in reality, is not a simple question.

What to look for when choosing shared hosting

  1. About reviews – a little further down I will provide a list of sites with ratings and hosting reviews on them, as well as a number of forums where all of this is being discussed. However, competition in the market is high, there are no ideal hosting providers (so that everyone can supply them at the level of 10 rubles), and therefore wherever you will find negative (often the result of a competitive war – it is not necessary to be the best if you can diminish the main competitors). In general, the darkness.
  2. Working technical support – virtual hosting is located almost entirely on the shoulders of the hosting team and your peace of mind (sometimes even mental health) depends on the quality of their work.
    Hosters usually have a (free) trial period, during which it is difficult to assess job stability, but can evaluate technical support . Contact them on Saturday evening and observe the speed and completeness of the response (imagine that at this moment your site is not accessible and is losing ground in the search engines). Get your brain out and watch the reaction.
  3. On the specifications service provided. In general, it is necessary to conduct marketing research on a topic in which it can be found cheaper and with not very negative reviews. If you are not a sophisticated webmaster, you will be interested in something from this list:
    1. The amount of disk space on the server’s hard drive allocated for your site’s files (although most Internet projects will have enough of the minimum currently offered).
    2. It is also customary to examine the type of hard drives in the server – it’s nice if it’s fast SSDs and not slow HDDs (hard drives).
    3. Sometimes there are traffic restrictions (it depends on the traffic to your site), but still, in most cases, you can’t look at it in particular.
    4. The number of sites and databases for them (as well as FTP users and e-mail accounts, if the latter is necessary) that you can create with this rate: choose from your current need, because you can switch to another rate without problems ( without moving the site).
    5. Allowed server load limits (percentage of processor time, RAM occupied, number of processes running simultaneously, etc.). Usually, the hosting plan doesn’t particularly spread it on the “poster”, but it’s worth finding out if you will later understand why you have been temporarily blocked or why they suggest switching to a higher rate (or to the VPS in general).
    6. The operating system under which the software runs on hosting. Usually it is Linux or Windows. The latter, as you know, is not free and this can affect the cost of the tariffs. Also, in Windows there won’t be such a convenient remote server management file (which means a web server program like Apache and not a hardware component) like .htaccess. A strange thing that allows you to do a lot, if not all.
    7. The country where the servers are physically located. See the reasons above (on the downsides of shared hosting).

Virtual Private Server (VPS / VDS)

Many (or almost all) hosting providers offer a service like a dedicated virtual server. Let’s see what it is? It is often indicated with abbreviations VPS / VDS (I am ashamed of not knowing the differences between them, but I don’t know – maybe they don’t?). These abbreviations are deciphered as follows: Vps (virtual private server) and Vds (dedicated virtual server). It looks the same. Well, let it be.

And here unlike the aforementioned shared hosting the virtual server has one and they must be considered fundamental. Both types of services are virtual, because on a real server (an iron box with “stuffing”) there will be at least several virtual boxes (containers). Those. they will again share server resources with each other, but the neighbors in the host machine in the case of VPS / VDS will no longer have to detect the presence of neighbors (in theory).

It is this (the transition from the “collective farm” of hosting to the “agricultural” VPS), as a rule, which is the main reason for switching from hosting to the virtual server. The host can force you to do this when it doesn’t have a higher rate (for the load created on the server) (and it certainly won’t).

For him, this will be a headache relief: your problematic site will no longer cause hundreds of calls from neighbors on the host computer (server). Well, for you, VPS / VDS can be an acquisition of a “headache”, but first of all.

Advantages of a dedicated virtual server as hosting

  1. The problems associated with over-loading your site on the provider’s server disappear – now you can’t go beyond the resources assigned to you (at the rate) (processor time, RAM size).
  2. The VPS / VDS tariffs provide for the positioning of “powerful projects” that simply will not “adapt” to a shared virtual hosting in any way they create (traffic, processor load or required) random access memory ).
  3. It is very important that someone controls the whole process, which is impossible to do on shared hosting. VPS / VDS offers space for creativity: put it on any operating system (a virtual server is similar to a virtual machine on a normal computer, that is, it is an imitation of working with a real “whole” server), put on it any software (web server, mail or more any bundle and any protection of your choice and competence) and any number of sites, databases, FTP accounts, etc …
  4. The virtual server tariffs provide for the assignment of one or more IP addresses, which allows you to move away from the negative created by the involuntary neighboring IPs, which will take place on shared hosting.
  5. Initial VPS / VDS rates (with a small dedicated resource) are often comparable or even lower than regular hosting rates.

Cons inherent in VPS / VDS

  1. Often, at lower virtual server rates, your sites “launch” slower than shared hosting. Alas and ah. Five years ago it hit me unpleasantly and forced me to sit on the “collective farm” for another year, periodically causing the hoster to be dissatisfied with the high workload. Here you cannot already reach the neighbors and the resources assigned to the minimum rates are not enough to “fly” everything.
  2. The fees of a virtual dedicated server for medium-sized and powerful projects often come close to the rates of truly dedicated servers and are very biting. Therefore, it is advisable to invest in optimizing the load of the site on the server (at least) so as not to pay too much.
    For example, I have a rate for 800 rubles per month (subject to payment for the year) on Infobox. What to say? Usually it takes it (if the “radishes” do not cuddle) for the eyes (no more than 20% of my sites eat far from the assigned resource, but it is better to have a margin). And this is with a good presence. And all thanks to the free HyperCache (see the previous link).
  3. The hoster only provides you with one container (virtual machine) and filling and its performance are your concern. Can you handle it? It’s okay if not. I’m also a noob in server administration (I’m afraid of it like fire!).
    Just pay those who are “up to date” (in this regard, I prefer to host technical support, because freelancers quickly trust the site) and after an hour or two you get a job site with all the settings, links, the accesses and passwords necessary for its administration (virtual hosting wing for simplicity).
  4. Again, all the problems with the site on your VPS / VDS are your problems. If the host machine is in order, then in the software you will choose if something happens, well, or pay to the person who set everything up for you. Personally, I usually do it – I turn to technical support, say I’m ready to pay and describe the business. They challenge, they provide links to a description of what needs to be done (in Linux via the command line – HORROR !!!), but then they do everything and in 90% of cases they are free. Infobox is still about it. But maybe somewhere even better, where we are not …
  5. The country where the VPS / VDS is physically located may be different from the country where your primary audience resides. You have to find out or verify it during the free trial period (almost everyone has one). The reasons for hosting server capacities in other countries with Russian suppliers usually depend on the economy. For example, Infobox had servers (I don’t know how now) servers not only in the St. Petersburg data centers, but also in the European ones. But when you order a virtual server, you can choose your favorite country, which I did.

What to look for when choosing a dedicated virtual server as hosting

  1. Resources assigned to the user: amount of RAM, hard disk space, equivalent processor power, number of allocated IPs, etc. You can choose by testing the rates, for example, in the free trial period and realizing how much energy is enough for you (preferably with a margin). Of course, you will have to pay more for large resources, but the overloaded and constantly suspended brakes or server is unlikely to like it too.
  2. Price: an indicator for many is very important, but it must be considered together with quality. My hoster has average rates (even closer to the lowest), but the quality (for the last two years for sure) of the VPS / VDS services is up to par. For others I won’t say, you need to read reviews. But even here there is a double-edged sword (I give an example below, when problems can be temporary in nature and no longer appear in reality).
  3. Virtualization system: I don’t know exactly which ones are and which are better, but you can search on a Google topic. Usually this affects the speed and stability of the sites, as well as the effect of neighboring containers on the same host machine on each other.
    There was a time in bookeers where there were problems with this (or with the technical park) and I even decided to move. I thought, thought, pulled, still thought and waited for everything to be in place. And in the past two years there have been no questions (it was, but any server of any capacity will drop if you try). No, well done guys – they radically changed something and the problems became unnecessary. It’s nice that I didn’t move.
  4. Reviews: I mentioned it in the second paragraph, but it’s still important. At least it is important to understand that you will not find a single hoster with only “wow” reviews. This may be for young market players who have not yet begun to “catch” competitors. And you yourself know the positive reviews on where to order and how much they cost (if you don’t know, google and find out). In general, both sides are all spammed and figs will find out if there is at least a percentage of real reviews there or all of them are solid.
  5. Technical support – placed at the end, because on VPS / VDS you yourself have technical support, unless, of course, something global happened (virtual container – the host machine crashes or the channel equipment).
    Even if I continue to haunt technical support in the first place, and if they themselves do not repair my server (it is even possible to call Infobox that I am actively exploiting), then they are sure to recommend something (to finally get left behind – me, when the site freezes, I simply become unbearable and stubborn in amazement).

Dedicated server, cloud hosting and colocation

In principle, there is nothing special to say. True dedicated server differs from virtual only because there is no virtualization here: all hardware resources are yours. All settings and control of the software are also your concerns. But there is nothing new compared to VPS / VDS. It is clear that the price will already start with large sums, because it makes no sense to keep very weak computers in the data center, because they still occupy a place and the idea will not pay off.

Location – it’s almost the same, just your server (native and family), but it’s located in the host’s data center because of the need for 24-hour Internet access, power from the network, acceptable accommodation conditions and fire control. The main advantage is that you only pay for accommodation and are confident in your hardware’s capabilities.

Cloud hosting . Mysterious, but having an important feature – A very large scaling area (often this can be done on the fly). You can use a resource that you will not receive on any physical server. In addition, the payment often only applies to the resource actually used, which allows significant savings.

There is also a negative: this is usually a great price (for example, compared to shared hosting or VPS / VDS) and a bit of “familiarity” or something. What kind of cloud is this? On the side it looks like a heavy-duty server (unlimited in resources) on which it is possible to cut an arbitrary size of VPS / VDS with any relationship between memory, processor power, file space, etc.

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